Theme: Teaching clinical topics to AOP trainees

Author: Ananthi S, Aravind Eye Hospital – Tirunelveli

Imparting knowledge about congenital glaucoma among sisters.

  1. Imparting theoretical knowledge: Theoretical knowledge will be transferred to Allied ophthalmic personal (AOP) through classes using PowerPoint presentation by senior glaucoma specialist. Then the same class will be taken by AOP tutor in-charge.
  2. Animation Video: Showing video on congenital glaucoma explaining its clinical presentation, History taking, investigation done under general anaesthesia, counselling, surgical management and importance of life time follow up.
  3. Observation: Observation in glaucoma clinic during Doctor examination, counselling, and in operation theatre during evaluation under anaesthesia and surgery.
  4. Seminar Presentation: Further their understanding can be improved and assessed through seminar presentation by Trainees
  5. Clinical discussion and Case presentation: A case will be given for the AOP trainees to present and will be discussed in the presence of glaucoma specialist.
  6. Conducting theory exams, Projects and mind mapping after classes will be done to evaluate the AOP trainees understanding on congenital glaucoma.
Author: Jenslin R J, Aravind Eye Hospital – Tirunelveli

Glaucoma is a group of conditions characterized by a progressive optic neuropathy. The optic nerve head or optic disc describes the area of the optic nerve that is visible clinically on examination. The optic cup represents the central area of the optic nerve head where axons are absent. This area is generally fairly round or horizontally oval in healthy eyes. Glaucoma is characterised by progressive thinning of the neuroretinal rim. As retinal nerve fibres are lost due to glaucoma, the optic cup enlarges. The optic disc is normally vertically oval in dimension, but the cup itself is normally horizontally oval. Vertical elongation of the optic cup can be a common feature of the glaucomatous disc, as narrowing is greater in the superior and inferior poles. Knowledge about glaucoma, Optic nerve head changes and disease progression should be known to all Allied Ophthalmic personal. Knowledge is transferred through following ways.

  1. Theoretical knowledge is imparted through classes by glaucoma specialist
  2. Skill training on IOP measurement and Fundus examination using slit lamp
  3. Train using Fundus models and Fundus drawings to explain different stages of glaucoma
  4. Case discussions and presentations
  5. Seminars on Glaucoma, How to diagnose and referral protocol
  6. Teaching them fundus drawings
  7. Animation videos – used to visualise the fundus findings
  8. Skill training and assessment for Vision Centre AOP’s
  9. Conducting continuous medical education(CME) program for Vision centre AOP’s
Author: Monica, Aravind Eye Hospital – Coimbatore

The study aims to compare the effectiveness of the debate-style of teaching versus the traditional lecture model. This prospective observational study included 37 students from the first and second year allied ophthalmic personnel (AOP) trainees. Initially, we subjected the trainees to a traditional lecture on refractory errors and conducted a post-lecture assessment. After a month, we led a debate on the same topic involving the senior personnel, which was video-taped. The recorded debate session was employed in the innovative teaching assembly, and a post-lecture assessment was done. We found a statistically significant difference between the traditional lecture model scores and the debate-style score, and the trainees performed better after viewing the debate video. This study proves that innovative pedagogical tools can be employed to improve the efficacy of our classroom, and debates and discussions are valuable techniques to engage the learners.

Author: Krishnammal.N,  Aravind Eye Hospital – Tirunelveli

To make patient disposal faster and more efficient by evaluation ways of outpatient case sheets segregation.


To find if a particular case sheet segregation method is better in aiding faster outpatient crowd management.

  1. Based on vision.
  2. Symptoms (Red eye, pain, sudden loss of vision, trauma, headache)
  3. Torch light examination
  4. Old case sheets
  5. Age
  6. Distance of patients home from hospital.
  7. Vulunerable patient(old age, wheel chair, one eyed, visibly sick, infants and toddlers)
  8. Personal grievance
  1. To save patient waiting time.
  2. To use our resources efficiently.
  3. Faster management of emergency.
Author: Renuka & Kaveri, Aravind Eye Hospital – Coimbatore

There has been a recent proposal for a shift in Allied Ophthalmic Personnel (AOP) education from the traditional lecture methods towards other interactive approaches that encourage higher-order thinking and active participation from students.

One such way that has received much attention is the Flipped Classroom (FC), which allows students to learn concepts as required homework independently, and then use this gained knowledge during class time to engage in analytical thinking opportunities and application of knowledge.

This study assesses the FC model’s effectiveness in teaching ophthalmology topics for residents in a teaching institute. A classroom was conducted where an essential ophthalmology topic was taught using the proposed approach. One week before each session, the AOP trainees were provided hand-picked articles and specially designed instructional videos.

After priming them with the essential information, the students attended the classroom session where they applied their learned concepts by active group discussions and questioning.

After the meeting, they were encouraged to re-evaluate their learning and come up with potential research questions.
There are necessarily three P’s involved: Priming before the class, Participating during the class, and Pondering after the class. We found that the FC model provided a better learning experience for the students compared to the traditional didactic method. This study also provides valuable tips and techniques to put the FC into actual practice for the teachers.

Author: K. Sangeetha,  SVAEH, Tirupati

Newly joined AOP are used to the one way lectures and memorizing their subject content in high school .We have come up with ideas that get them to be more interactive and interested. At the end of each method they present what they have learnt as a model, a Poster or a Rangoli and use these aids to teach each other. This server as a great way to revise and ensures their proper understanding role plays help with patient communication, empathy and when learning a new language through this presentation we would like to share our ideas with others.

Author: Prasanna Venkatesh Ramesh, Mahathma Eye Hospital Private Limited

Practical sessions facilitate teaching, critical thinking and coping skills, especially among medical students and allied ophthalmic personnels. Currently in ophthalmology, virtual and augmented reality are employed for surgical training, using three-dimensional (3D) eye models. These 3D models when printed, can be used not only for surgical training, but also in teaching ophthalmic residents, fellows and AOPs for concept learning through tactile 3D puzzle assembly. 3D printing is perfectly suited for the creation of complex, bespoke items in a cost-effective manner, making it ideal for rapid prototyping. Puzzle making, when combined with 3D printing can evolve into a different level of learning in the field of ophthalmology. Though various 3D eye models are currently available, complex structures such as cerebral venous system and circle of Willis has never been 3D printed and presented as 3D puzzle for assembling and learning. According to our knowledge, this concept of ophthalmic pedagogy has never been reported. In this paper, we discuss in detail the 3D models created by us; for printing into multiple puzzle pieces for effective tactile learning by cognitive assembling.

Author: Tulika Ghoshal, KPC Medical College & Hospital

To see if a novel technique of teaching Supranuclear Gaze Palsies (SGPs), especially the horizontal gaze palsies, with simple flow diagrams improved learning in Optometry students.


A single centre retrospective study. SGPs was taught to the students in the “standard” way and a written test taken. SGPs was again taught, by the same tutor, to the same group, with the additional aid of some simple flow diagrams and a written test taken. The data was then assessed.


Simple mean comparisons on the average test scores in the two exam treatment conditions were conducted. A one-tailed t-test revealed that these students scored significantly higher in their exam after the novel teaching.
Students emphasised a subjective improvement in understanding after the novel method of teaching. This study shows a statistical superiority of using a novel method of teaching SGPs over a standard didactic method. Despite studies on new teaching strategies, practical methods to improve the teaching experience are uncommon. Novel teaching ways are now coming to the forefront. Educators introducing new teaching methodologies must evaluate the outcomes of these experiences. Study limitation- Improvement in test scores may be due to reinforcement of teaching- however feedback of subjective improvement suggests otherwise.


Didactic lectures alone are no longer adequate for training. Simple novel practical techniques should shorten the learning curve. My study gives an insight into the fact that this simple novel technique should be used to teach Neuro- Ophthalmology. It can also easily be adapted to teach other topics.